About 40,000 years ago, the first CroMagnon ancestors from Africa arrived in Europe. They found a continent teaming with life and wildlife. It was inhabited by Neanderthal hunter/ gatherer groups. Oldest Neanderthal remains date from about 200,000 years ago. Although a different human species, they have left a genetic heritage: about 4% of the genes from contemporary humans, with exception of sub-Saharan Africans are derived from the Neanderthal cousins. Europeans got their white skin and light hairs from them. Where the CroMagnon population experiencen just the end of the last Ice Age, well below the land ice line, the Neamderthal people survived at least two and possibly three Ice Ages. The woolly-haired mammoth was one of their favorite preys. The famous cave paintings in France and Spain are attributed to the CroMagnon people, but recently cave paintings were found that are a good deal older than 40,000 years. So, we don’t really know who created the paintings in Lascaux and Altamira. CroMagnons were hunter/ gatherers as well, till they turned aragrarian, some 8000 years ago.